Embedded Sensing Systems
Embedded%20operating%20system%20and%20language%20co-design
We research new programming languages, operating systems, and software for embedded devices. Embedded systems are difficult computer platforms for programmers to work with. The need to meet hard real-time deadlines, fit programs into a small amount of memory, be robust to failures, and conserve energy wherever possible. Furthermore, ultra-low power systems have very different hardware, lacking abstractions such as virtualization and cache hierarchies. Our work focuses on software abstractions that allow you to build large, complex applications. TinyOS is a component-based operating system for tiny, low-power wireless devices. The need to quickly build large and complex systems that meet these constraints raises novel challenges in isolating independent subsystems from one another in the absence of virtualization. By co-designing the language within which TinyOS is implemented in parallel with the OS itself, we are able to add language primitives to help analysis, as well as design the OS so that it is more checkable. TinyOS has thousands of users and is now an open-source community project. Low-power wireless communication is a common challenge in embedded applications: an ultra-efficient sensing device that can't report its data is useless. We've therefore developed new wireless protocols, simulators, and programming abstractions to make networking much easier. We've established that packet losses in wireless networks have complex correlations over space and time. Protocols which consider these complications are much more reliable and higher performance. Our research on the Collection Tree Protocol, CTP, has become the core networking primitive in RPL (RFC6550), the Internet standard for connecting low-power wireless networks to the Internet. Finally, we deploy our protocols and systems to test their effectiveness in practice. In collaboration with epidimeologists, we set out to collect data on all close proximity interactions in a closed network - a U.S. high school. We recruited over 700 people - students, teachers, and staff - and asked them to wear a wireless device for a day. At the end of the school day, we collected enough data to reconstruct the real-life social network of the entire school. We later used this data to study the spread of infectious diseases such as the flu. The data revealed a high-density network with typical small-world properties and a relatively homogeneous distribution of both interaction time and interaction partners among subjects. Analysis of targeted immunization strategies suggested that contact network data are required to design strategies that are significantly more effective than random immunization. Immunization strategies based on contact network data were most effective at high vaccination coverage.


Publications

The Case for Writing a Kernel in Rust.

Amit Levy, Bradford Campbell, Branden Ghena, Pat Pannuto, Prabal Dutta, Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the Eighth ACM SIGOPS Asia-Pacific Workshop on Systems (APSys 2017), 2017.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Trust but Verify: Auditing Secure Internet of Things Devices.

Judson Wilson and Riad S. Wahby and Henry Corrigan-Gibbs and Dan Boneh and Philip Levis and Keith Winstein. In Proceedings of the The 15th ACM International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys 2017), 2017.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Robust, low-cost, auditable random number generation for embedded system security.

Ben Lampert, Riad S. Wahby, Shane Leonard and Philip Levis. In The 14th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2016.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Beetle: Flexible Communication for Bluetooth Low Energy.

Amit Levy, James Hong, Laurynas Riliskis, Philip Levis, and Keith Winstein. In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (MobiSys), 2016.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

CESEL: Securing a Mote for 20 Years.

Kevin Kiningham, Mark Horowitz, Philip Levis, and Dan Boneh. In Proceedings of the 13th European conference on Wireless sensor networks (EWSN 2016), 2016.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Ravel: Programming IoT Applications as Distributed Models, Views, and Controllers.

Laurynas Riliskis, James Hong, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the he 2015 International Workshop on Internet of Things towards Applications (IoT-App'15), 2015.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Ownership is Theft: Experiences Building an Embedded OS in Rust.

Amit Levy, Michael P Andersen, Bradford Campbell, David Culler, Prabal Dutta, Branden Ghena, Philip Levis and Pat Pannuto. In Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Programming Languages and Operating Systems (PLOS 2015), 2015.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

System Architecture Support for Green Enterprise Computing.

Maria Kazandjieva, Chinmayee Shah, Ewen Cheslack-Postava, Behram Mistree, Philip Levis. In Proceedings 5th International Green Computing Conference (IGCC), 2014.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

CTP: An Efficient, Robust, and Reliable Collection Tree Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

Omprakash Gnawali, Rodrigo Fonseca, Kyle Jamieson, Maria Kazandjieva, David Moss, and Philip Levis. In ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN), 2013.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Long-term modification of cortical synapses improves sensory perception.

Robert C Froemke, Ioana Carcea, Alison J Barker, Kexin Yuan, Bryan A Seybold, Ana Raquel O Martins, Natalya Zaika, Hannah Bernstein, Megan Wachs, Philip A Levis, Daniel B Polley, Michael M Merzenich and Christoph E Schreiner. In Nature Neuroscience 16, 79-88, 2013.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Experiences from a Decade of TinyOS Development.

Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the 10th Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation (OSDI), 2012.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

RFC 6719 - The Minimum Rank with Hysteresis Objective Function.

Omprakash Gnawali and Philip Levis. In Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Request for Comments: 6719, 2012.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Energy Management in Mobile Devices with the Cinder Operating System.

Arjun Roy, Stephen Rumble, Ryan Stutsman, Philip Levis, David Mazieres, and Nickolai Zeldovich. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Systems (EuroSys 2011), 2011.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

RFC 6206: The Trickle Algorithm.

Philip Levis and Thomas Clausen and Jonathan Hui and Omprakash Gnawali and JeongGil Ko. In Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), Request for Comments: 6206, 2011.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

A high-resolution human contact network for infectious disease transmission.

Marcel Salathe, Maria Kazandjieva, Jung Woo Lee, Philip Levis, Marcus W. Feldman and James H. Jones. In Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 2010.

DataData Web pageWWW PaperPaper

A Case for Evaluating Sensor Network Protocols Concurrently.

Omprakash Gnawali, Leonidas Guibas, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM International Workshop on Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental evaluation and Characterization (WiNTECH), 2010.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

The k-factor: Inferring Protocol Performance Using Inter-Link Reception Correlation.

Kannan Srinivasan, Mayank Jain, Jung Il Choi, Tahir Azim, Edward S Kim, Philip Levis and Bhaskar Krishnamachari. In Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom 2010), 2010.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Whirlpool Routing for Mobility.

Jung Woo Lee, Branislav Kusy, Tahir Azim, Philip Levis, and Basem Shihada. In Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), 2010.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Experiences in Measuring a Human Contact Network for Epidemiology Research.

Maria Kazandjieva, Jung Woo Lee, Marcel Salathe, Marcus W. Feldman, James H. Jones, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Embedded Networked Sensors (HotEmNets), 2010.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Physically-Based Models of Low-Power Wireless Links using Signal Power Simulation.

Tal Rusak and Philip Levis. In Computer Networks: The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking (COMNET), 2010.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

An Empirical Study of Low Power Wireless.

Kannan Srinivasan, Prabal Dutta, Arsalan Tavakoli, Philip Levis. In ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, 2010.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

TOSThreads: Thread-Safe and Non-Invasive Preemption in TinyOS.

Kevin Klues, Chieh-Jan Mike Liang, Jeongyeup Paek, Razvan Musaloiu-E., Philip Levis, Andreas Terzis, and Ramesh Govindan. In Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2009.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

The Case for a Network Protocol Isolation Layer.

Jung Il Choi, Maria Kazandjieva, Mayank Jain, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2009.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Collection Tree Protocol.

Omprakash Gnawali, Rodrigo Fonseca, Kyle Jamieson, David Moss, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2009.

DataData Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Surviving Sensor Network Software Faults.

Yang Chen, Omprakash Gnawali, Maria Kazandjieva, Philip Levis, and John Regehr. In Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles (SOSP), 2009.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Starburst SSD: An Efficient Protocol for Selective Dissemination.

Tahir Azim, Philip Levis and Qasim Mansoor. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2009.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Burstiness and scaling in the structure of low-power wireless links.

Tal Rusak and Philip Levis. In ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, 2009.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Quanto: Tracking Energy in Networked Embedded Systems.

Rodrigo Fonseca, Prabal Dutta, Philip Levis, and Ion Stoica. In Proceedings of the Eighth USENIX Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation (OSDI), 2008.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

The Emergence of a Networking Primitive in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Philip Levis, Eric Brewer, David Culler, David Gay, Samuel Madden, Neil Patel, Joe Polastre, Scott Shenker, Robert Szewczyk, and Alec Woo. In Communications of the ACM, Volume 51, Issue 7, 2008.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Data Discovery and Dissemination with DIP.

Kaisen Lin and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks (IPSN), 2008.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Four-Bit Wireless Link Estimation.

Rodrigo Fonseca, Omprakash Gnawali, Kyle Jamieson, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets VI), 2007.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Visibility: A New Metric for Protocol Design.

Megan Wachs, Jung Il Choi, Jung Woo Lee, Kannan Srinivasan, Zhe Chen, Mayank Jain and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the Fifth ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2007.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Integrating Concurrency Control and Energy Management in Device Drivers.

Kevin Klues, Vlado Handziski, Chenyang Lu, Adam Wolisz, David Culler, David Gay, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the 21st ACM Symposium on Operating System Principles (SOSP), 2007.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Improving Wireless Simulation Through Noise Modeling.

HyungJune Lee, Alberto Cerpa, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Information Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks (IPSN), 2007.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Opening the Sensornet Black Box.

Jung Il Choi, Jung Woo Lee, Megan Wachs, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Wireless Sensornet Architecture (WWSNA), 2007.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Some Implications of Low-Power Wireless to IP Routing.

Kannan Srinivasan, Prabal Dutta, Arsalan Tavakoli, and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets V), 2006.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

RSSI Is Under-Appreciated.

Kannan Srinivasan and Philip Levis. In Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Embedded Networked Sensors (EmNets), 2006.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

A Unifying Link Abstraction for Wireless Sensor Networks.

Joseph Polastre, Jonathan Hui, Philip Levis, Jerry Zhao, David Culler, Scott Shenker, and Ion Stoica. In Proceedings of the Third ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2005.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Towards a Sensor Network Architecture: Lowering the Waistline.

David Culler, Prabal Dutta, Cheng Tien Eee, Rodrigo Fonseca, Jonathan Hui, Philip Levis, Joseph Polastre, Scott Shenker, Ion Stoica, Gilman Tolle, and Jerry Zhao. In Proceedings of the Tenth Workshop on Hot Topics in Operating Systems (HotOS X), 2005.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Software Design Patterns for TinyOS.

David Gay, Philip Levis, and David Culler. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN/SIGBED 2005 Conference on Languages, Compilers, and Tools for Embedded Systems (LCTES), 2005.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Active Sensor Networks.

Philip Levis, David Gay, and David Culler. In Proceedings of the Second USENIX/ACM Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), 2005.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

The Emergence of Networking Abstractions and Techniques in TinyOS.

Philip Levis, Sam Madden, David Gay, Joe Polastre, Robert Szewczyk, Alec Woo, Eric Brewer, and David Culler. In Proceedings of the First USENIX/ACM Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), 2004.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Trickle: A Self-Regulating Algorithm for Code Propagation and Maintenance in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Philip Levis, Neil Patel, David Culler, and Scott Shenker. In Proceedings of the First USENIX/ACM Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), 2004.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

TOSSIM: Accurate and Scalable Simulation of Entire TinyOS Applications.

Philip Levis, Nelson Lee, Matt Welsh, and David Culler. In Proceedings of the First ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), 2003.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper

The nesC Language: A Holistic Approach to Network Embedded Systems.

David Gay, Philip Levis, Robert von Behren, Matt Welsh, Eric Brewer, and David Culler. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 2003 Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation (PLDI), 2003.

Web pageWWW PaperPaper

Mate: A Tiny Virtual Machine for Sensor Networks.

Philip Levis and David Culler. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS X), 2002.

SlidesSlides Web pageWWW PaperPaper
Funding
This work was supported by generous gifts from Intel Research, DoCoMo Capital, Foundation Capital, the National Science Foundation under grants #0615308 and #0846014, the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Microsoft Research, scholarships from the Samsung Scholarship Foundation and a Stanford Terman Fellowship. Our scientific work was supported a National Science Foundation awards BCS-0947132, DE-AR-0000018, grants #0615308 and #0846014, a Branco Weiss fellowship, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Award 1K01HD051494, and National Institutes of Health Grant GM28016.






Login